|6th Asia-Pacific Conference on
Incorporating the 5th ACM SIGCHI-NZ Symposium
|June 29 - July 2 2004|
Don Norman: Emotional Design
Usable products don't have to be ugly. In fact, the brain works differently when happy rather than anxious, so products can actually appear easier to use if they give fun and pleasure, along with beauty.
New research on human affect and emotion has interesting implications for application to the design of products. In this talk I use the three-level theory of human effective functioning, developed with Andrew Ortony and Bill Revelle of Northwestern University, and apply it to design.
There are three levels of processing: Visceral, Behavioral, and Reflective. The visceral is automatic, biological, and cross--cultural -- this is where attractiveness starts. The behavioral level is all about doing things, about meeting expectations. This is the home of functionality and usability. The reflective level provides conscious analysis. This is the home of self-image and where cultural values and influences are felt. This is where brand name and product positioning is so important. The three levels of processing play different, but equally important roles in design. Good design must satisfy all three levels.
I illustrate the principles with numerous examples from the world of products, as well as from the preliminary results of an experimental study of people's reactions to a wide variety of products, being conducted by the Nielsen Norman group.
Although I used to be known as a critic of unusable things, I have changed. I am now an advocate for pleasurable, enjoyable products. Beauty is good. Successful products should a pleasure to use, and convey a positive sense of self, of accomplishment, and pride of ownership.
Donald A. Norman calls himself a "user advocate." Business Week calls him a "cantankerous visionary" - cantankerous in his quest for excellence. Upside Magazine named him one of the "Elite 100" for 1999. Dr. Norman brings a unique mix of the social sciences and engineering to bear on everyday products. Although he is a strong advocate of human-centered design and simplicity and perhaps best known for his book, "The Design of Everyday Things" Norman works to ensure that products appeal to the emotions as weel as to reason. "The well-rounded product," says Norman, "will enchance the heart as well as the mind, being a joy to behold as well as to use."
Dr. Norman is also Professor of Computer Science and Psychology at Northwestern University and Prof. Emeritus of both Cognitive Science and Psychology at the University of California, San Diego, former Vice President of the Advanced Technology Group, Apple Computer and an executive at Hewlett Packard. He was President of the Learning Systems division of Unext, a leader in online education. He is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, the American Psychological Society, the Cognitive Science Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has received an honorary degree from the University of Padua (Italy) and the "Lifetime Achievement Award" from SIGCHI, the professional organization for Computer-Human Interaction and the 2002 Mental Health award for contributions to Business from Psychology Today.
Dr. Norman is the author "The Design of Everyday Things," "Things That Make Us Smart." and "The Invisible Computer," a book that Business Week has called "the bible of post PC thinking." His newest book, "Emotional Design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things" emphasizes that products must please and delight, not just perform. Heart and mind combine to make products joyful, pleasurable, and emotionally satisfying. He lives at www.jnd.org.
Since 1979, Dr. Susan M. Dray has worked in the field of human factors to increase the quality and intuitiveness of user interface designs for users around the world. She has worked as both an internal and external consultant, and combines expertise in interface evaluation, usability evaluation, and contextual and ethnographic research with a cross-cultural and organizational perspective.
As President of Dray & Associates, Inc., she consults internationally on interface design and usability. She has evaluated and helped redesign user interfaces for all types of websites, desktop and Web applications, as well as both hardware and software consumer products and technical equipment. She specializes in international user studies, and has conducted user research in 17 countries, including one of the largest international usability evaluations ever done - studying 120 users in 8 countries in Europe and Asia.
Dr. Dray is a leader in the Human Factors profession nationally and internationally. She has given over 80 talks at conferences and symposia in the U.S., Europe, and Australia, including the invited Plenary Address to the 10th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Sydney, Australia, and the Keynote address at the 2nd South African Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, in Pretoria, South Africa in September, 2001. In addition, she has published numerous papers and book chapters. She was elected a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and has chaired both the Organizational Design and Management Technical Group and the Computer Systems Technical Group of this same organization, as well as the Computers and Communications Scientific and Technical Committee of the International Ergonomics Association. Dr. Dray was the North American editor of the prestigious international journal Behaviour and Information Technology, and she currently edits the Business column of the Association for Computing Machinery's magazine interactions.
Dr. Dray received her doctorate in Psychology from UCLA (1980) and is a Board Certified Human Factors Professional. Her website is at: www.dray.com.