List of Publications


Refereed journal papers

Witten, I.H. and Hill, D.R. (1971) “Teaching a course in real-time computer systems design.” Computer Bulletin, 15, pp. 331-334, September.
Witten, I.H. and Corbin, M.J. (1973) “Human operators and automatic adaptive controllers: a comparative study on a particular control task.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 5, pp. 75-104, January.
Atkin, R.A. and Witten, I.H. (1975) “A multidimensional approach to positional chess.” Int J. Man-Machine Studies, 7(6), pp. 727-750, November.
Atkin, R.A., Hartston, W.R. and Witten, I.H. (1976) “Fred CHAMP, positional-chess analyst.” Int J. Man-Machine Studies, 8(5), pp. 517-529, September.
Witten, I.H. (1976) “The apparent conflict between identification and control: a survey of the two-armed bandit problem.” J Franklin Institute, 301(1-2), pp. 161-189, January-February.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “An adaptive optimal controller for discrete-time Markov environments.” Information and Control, 34, pp. 286-295, August.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “Exploring, modelling, and controlling discrete sequential environments.” Int J. Man-Machine Studies, 9, pp. 715-735, November.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “A flexible scheme for assigning timing and pitch to synthetic speech.” Language and Speech, 20(3), pp. 240-260, July-September.
Witten, I.H. and Madams, P.H.C. (1977) “The Telephone Enquiry Service: a man-machine system using synthetic speech.” Int J. Man-Machine Studies, 9(4), pp. 449-464, July. Reprinted in Larson, J.A. (ed) (1982), End user facilities in the 1980's. IEEE Computer Society Press, NY, pp 73-88.
Witten, I.H. and Jenkins, R.L. (1978) “Processor-processor dialogue using existing input-output channels.” Computers and Digital Techniques, 1, pp. 125-130, October.
McCrea, P.G. and Witten, I.H. (1979) “Partial double precision with residue retention: a new method for solving differential equations on a microprocessor.” Computers and Digital Techniques, 2, pp. 100-104, June.
Witten, I.H. (1979) “Approximate, non-deterministic modelling of behaviour sequences.” Int J General Systems, 5, pp. 1-12, January.
Witten, I.H. and Abbess, J. (1979) “A microcomputer-based real-time speech synthesis-by-rule system.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 11(5), pp. 585-620, September.
Witten, I.H. and Corbett, C. (1979) “The identification of multidimensional time series and its application in computer graphics.” Computers and Digital Techniques, 2, pp. 244-250, December.
Witten, I.H. and Griffith, P. (1979) “A dual-processor structure for high-quality real-time linear predictive analysis of speech.” Digital Processes, 5(3-4), pp. 257-269.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Algorithms for adaptive linear prediction.” Computer J, 23, pp. 78-84, January.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Probabilistic behaviour/structure transformations using transitive Moore models.” Int J General Systems, 6(3), pp. 129-137.
Witten, I.H. (1981) “The new microprocessors.” IEE Trans Computers and Digital Techniques, 128E(5), pp. 197-204, September. Reprinted in Gupta, A. and Toong, H. (eds) (1983), Advanced microprocessors. IEEE Computer Society Press, NY, pp 12-19.
Witten, I.H. and McCrea, P.G. (1981) “Suppressing limit cycles in digital incremental computers.” IEEE Trans Circuits and Systems, CAS-28(7), pp. 723-730, July.
Witten, I.H. and Ng, Y.H. (1981) “An ideographic language front end processor for accessing English-language computer systems.” Computer J, 24(1), pp. 62-70, January.
Witten, I.H., Cleary, J.G., Darragh, J.J. and Hill, D.R. (1982) “Reducing keystroke counts with a predictive computer interface.” Proc IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computing to Aid the Handicapped, pp. 3-10, Charlottesville, VA, November.
Corbett, C. and Witten, I.H. (1982) “Host-satellite software tools for microcomputer systems.” IEE J on Software and Microsystems, 1(2), pp. 35-40, February.
Corbett, C. and Witten, I.H. (1982) “On the inclusion and placement of documentation graphics in computer typesetting.” Computer J, 25(2), pp. 272-277, February.
Witten, I.H. (1982) “Driving the Votrax speech synthesizer from a wide phonetic transcription with high-level prosodic markers.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 16(4), pp. 393-403, May.
Witten, I.H. (1982) “On the impact of microprocessors on management structures.” Proc IEE (Part A), 129(4), pp. 244-250, June.
Witten, I.H., Bonham, M. and Strong, E. (1982) “On the power of traps and diversions in a document preparation language.” Software—Practice and Experience, 12, pp. 1119-1131.
Witten, I.H. and Neal, R. (1982) “Using Peano curves for bilevel display of continuous-tone images.” IEEE Computer Graphics, 2(3), pp. 47-52, May.
Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J.G. (1983) “An introduction to the architecture of the Intel iAPX 432.” Software and Microsystems, 2(2), pp. 29-34, April.
Witten, I.H. and Wyvill, B. (1983) “On the generation and use of space-filling curves.” Software—Practice and Experience, 13, pp. 519-525.
Cleary, J.G. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “A comparison of enumerative and adaptive codes.” IEEE Trans Information Theory, IT-30(2), pp. 306-315, March.
Cleary, J.G. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Data compression using adaptive coding and partial string matching.” IEEE Trans Communications, COM-32(4), pp. 396-402, April.
Witten, I.H., Cleary, J. and Greenberg, S. (1984) “On frequency-based menu-splitting algorithms.” Int J. Man-Machine Studies, 21(2), pp. 135-148, August.
Bonham, M. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “Towards distributed document preparation with interactive and noninteractive viewing.” Infor, 23(4), pp. 365-388, November.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “Adaptive personalized interfaces—a question of viability.” Behaviour and Information Technology, 4(1), pp. 31-45, January-March.
Witten, I.H. (1985) “Elements of computer typography.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 23(6), pp. 623-687, December.
Witten, I.H. and Bramwell, B. (1985) “A system for interactive viewing of structured documents.” Communications of the ACM, 28(3), pp. 280-288, March.
Witten, I.H. and Greenberg, S. (1985) “User interfaces for office systems.” in Oxford Surveys in Information Technology Volume 2, edited by P.I. Zorkoczy, pp. 69-104. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
Zissos, A.Y. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “User modelling for a computer coach: a case study.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 23(6), pp. 729-750, December.
Witten, I.H. (1987) “In search of 'autonomy'.” Future Computing Systems, 2(1), pp. 35-53.
Witten, I.H. (1987) “Modeling behaviour sequences: principles, practice, prospects.” Future Computing Systems, 2(1), pp. 55-81.
Witten, I.H., Neal, R. and Cleary, J.G. (1987) “Arithmetic coding for data compression.” Communications of the ACM, 30(6), pp. 520-540, June. Reprinted in C Gazette 2(3) 4-25, December 1987.
Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J.G. (1988) “On the privacy afforded by adaptive text compression.” Computers and Security, 7(4), pp. 397-408, August.
Witten, I.H. and MacDonald, B.A. (1988) “Using concept learning for knowledge acquisition.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 29(2), pp. 171-196, August. Reprinted in Gaines, B.R. & Boose, J..H (eds) (1990), Machine learning and uncertain reasoning, Academic Press, London, pp. 139-164.
Bell, T.C., Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J.G. (1989) “Modeling for text compression.” Computing Surveys, 21(4), pp. 557-591, December.
Krawchuk, B.J. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Explanation-based learning: its role in problem solving.” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 1(1), pp. 27-49, January-March.
MacDonald, B.A. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “A framework for knowledge acquisition through techniques of concept learning.” IEEE Trans Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 19(3), pp. 499-512, May/June.
Maulsby, D.L., Witten, I.H. and Kittlitz, K.A. (1989) “Metamouse: specifying graphical procedures by example.” Computer Graphics, 23(3), pp. 127-136, August. Proc ACM SIGGRAPH, Boston.
Darragh, J.J., Witten, I.H. and James, M.L. (1990) “The reactive keyboard: a predictive typing aid.” IEEE Computer, 23(11), pp. 41-49, November.
Phan, T.H. and Witten, I.H. (1990) “Accelerating search in function induction.” J Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 2(2), pp. 131-150, April-June.
Thimbleby, H., Anderson, S. and Witten, I.H. (1990) “Reflexive CSCW: supporting long-term personal work.” Interacting with Computers, 2(3), pp. 330-336.
Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1990) “Source models for natural language text.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 32(5), pp. 545-579, May.
Witten, I.H. and Conklin, D. (1990) “Modelling music: systems, structure, and prediction.” Interface: J New Music Research, 19(1), pp. 53-66, Spring.
Darragh, J.J. and Witten, I.H. (1991) “Adaptive predictive text generation and the reactive keyboard.” Interacting with Computers, 3(1), pp. 27-50, April.
Smith, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1991) “A planning mechanism for generating story text.” Literary and Linguistic Computing, 6(2), pp. 119-126.
Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1991) “The zero-frequency problem: estimating the probabilities of novel events in adaptive text compression.” IEEE Trans Information Theory, 37(4), pp. 1085-1094, July.
Witten, I.H., Bell, T.C. and Nevill, C.G. (1991) “Indexing and compressing full-text databases for CD-ROM.” J Information Science, 17, pp. 265-271.
Witten, I.H., Thimbleby, H.W., Coulouris, G. and Greenberg, S. (1991) “Liveware: a new approach to sharing data in social networks.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 34(3), pp. 337-348, March. Also published in Greenberg, S. (Ed) Computer-supported cooperative work and groupware. Academic Press, London, UK, 1991, pp. 211-222.
Manzara, L.C., Witten, I.H. and James, M. (1992) “On the entropy of music: an experiment with Bach Chorale melodies.” Leonardo Music Journal, 2(1), pp. 81-88.
Maulsby, D.L., Witten, I.H., Kittlitz, K.A. and Franceschin, V.G. (1992) “Inferring graphical procedures: the compleat Metamouse.” Human-Computer Interaction, 7(1), pp. 47-89.
Mo, D.H. and Witten, I.H. (1992) “Learning text editing tasks from examples: a procedural approach.” Behaviour and Information Technology, 11(1), pp. 32-45.
Witten, I.H. (1992) “Teaching professional skills for the computer science researcher.” Computer Science Education, 3(2), pp. 153-168.
Witten, I.H., MacDonald, B.A., Maulsby, D.L. and Heise, R. (1992) “Programming by example: the human face of AI.” AI and Society, 6, pp. 166-185.
Bell, T.C., Moffat, A., Nevill-Manning, C.G., Witten, I.H. and Zobel, J. (1993) “Data compression in full-text retrieval systems.” J American Society for Information Science, 44(9), pp. 508-531, October.
Darragh, J.J., Cleary, J.G. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Bonsai: a compact representation of trees.” Software—Practice and Experience, 23(3), pp. 277-291, March.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Supporting command reuse: Empirical foundations and principles.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 39(3), pp. 353-390, September.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Supporting command reuse: Mechanisms for reuse.” Int J Man-Machine Studies, 39(3), pp. 391-425, September.
Saheed, A. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Processing textual images.” New Zealand Journal of Computing, 4(2), pp. 57-66, May.
Bell, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “The relationship between greedy parsing and symbolwise text compression.” J Association for Computing Machinery, 41(4), pp. 708-724, July.
Conklin, D. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Complexity-based induction.” Machine Learning, 16(3), pp. 203-225, September.
Mitrovic, A., Witten, I.H. and Maulsby, D.L. (1994) “An experiment in the application of similarity-based learning to programming by example.” Int J Intelligent Systems, 9(4), pp. 341-364, April.
Moffat, A., Sharman, N., Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1994) “An empirical evaluation of coding methods for multi-symbol alphabets.” Information Processing and Management, 30(6), pp. 791-804, November. Full version of 1993 Data Compression Conference paper.
Thimbleby, H.W., Inglis, S. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Displaying 3D images: algorithms for single-image random-dot stereograms.” IEEE Computer, 27(10), pp. 38-48, October.
Witten, I.H., Bell, T.C., Emberson, H., Inglis, S. and Moffat, A. (1994) “Textual image compression: two-stage lossy/lossless encoding of textual images.” Proc IEEE, 82(6), pp. 878-888, June.
Witten, I.H., Bell, T.C., Moffat, A., Nevill-Manning, C.G., Smith, T.C. and Thimbleby, H. (1994) “Semantic and generative models for lossy text compression.” Computer J, 37(2), pp. 83-87, April.
Witten, I.H., Manzara, L.C. and Conklin, D. (1994) “Comparing human and computational models of music prediction.” Computer Music J, 18(1), pp. 70-80, Spring.
Conklin, D. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Multiple viewpoint systems for music prediction.” J New Music Research, 24(1), pp. 51-73, March.
McQueen, R.J., Garner, S.R., Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Applying machine learning to agricultural data.” J Computing and Electronics in Agriculture, 12(4), pp. 275-293.
Thimbleby, H., Witten, I.H. and Pullinger, D. (1995) “Concepts of cooperation in artificial life.” IEEE Trans Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 25(7), pp. 1166-1171, July.
Maulsby, D. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Cima: An interactive concept learning system for end-user applications.” Applied Artificial Intelligence, 11(7-8), pp. 653-671, October-December.
Maulsby, D. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Teaching agents to learn: from user study to implementation.” IEEE Computer, 30(11), pp. 36-43, November.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Compression and explanation using hierarchical grammars.” Computer Journal, 40(2/3), pp. 103-116.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Identifying hierarchical structure in sequences: a linear-time algorithm.” J Artificial Intelligence Research, 7, pp. 67-82.
Witten, I.H. and McNab, R. (1997) “The New Zealand Digital Library: Collections and experience.” The Electronic Library, 15(6), pp. 495-504, December.
Frank, E., Y., W., Inglis, S., Holmes, G. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Using model trees for classification.” Machine Learning, 32(1), pp. 63-76, July.
Humphrey, M., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Knowledge visualization techniques for machine learning.” Intelligent Data Analysis, 2(4), pp. 333-347, October.
Moffat, A., Neal, R. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Arithmetic coding revisited.” ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 16(3), pp. 256-294, July.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Reed, T. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Extracting text from PostScript.” Software—Practice and Experience, 28(5), pp. 481-491, April.
Witten, I.H., Nevill-Manning, C.G., McNab, R. and Cunningham, S.J. (1998) “A public library based on full-text retrieval.” Communications of the ACM, 41(4), pp. 71-75, April.
Gutwin, C., Paynter, G.W., Witten, I.H., Nevill-Manning, C. and Frank, E. (1999) “Improving browsing in digital libraries with keyphrase indexes.” Decision Support Systems, 27(1-2), pp. 81-104, November.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Witten, I.H. and Paynter, G.W. (1999) “Lexically-generated subject hierarchies for browsing large collections.” International Journal of Digital Libraries, 2(2/3), pp. 111-123, September.
Ting, K.M., Low, B.T. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Learning from batched data: model combination versus data combination.” Knowledge and Information Systems, 1(1), pp. 83-106.
Ting, K.M. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Issues in stacked generalization.” J Artificial Intelligence Research, 10, pp. 271-289, May. (www.jair.org/abstracts/ting99a.html).
Witten, I.H., McNab, R., Jones, S., Cunningham, S.J., Bainbridge, D. and Apperley, M. (1999) “Managing complexity in a distributed digital library.” IEEE Computer, 32(2), pp. 74-79, February.
Frank, E., Trigg, L., Holmes, G. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Naive Bayes for regression.” Machine Learning, 41(1), pp. 5-25, October.
McNab, R.J., Smith, L.A., Witten, I.H. and Henderson, C.L. (2000) “Tune retrieval in the multimedia library.” Multimedia—Tools and Applications, 10, pp. 113-132.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Online and offline heuristics for inferring hierarchies of repetitions in sequences.” Proc IEEE, 88(11), pp. 1745-1755, November.
Teahan, W.J., Wen, Y., McNab, R. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “A compression-based algorithm for Chinese word segmentation.” Computational Linguistics, 26(3), pp. 375-393, September.
Apperley, M., Cunningham, S.J., Keegan, T.T. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “Niupepa: An historical newspaper collection.” Communications of the ACM, 44(5), pp. 86-87, May.
Cunningham, S.J., Littin, J.N. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “Applications of machine learning in information retrieval.” in Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M.E. Williams, pp. 341-419. American Society for Information Science.
Ware, M., Frank, E., Holmes, G., Hall, M. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “Interactive machine learning—letting users build classifiers.” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 55(3), pp. 281-292.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Boddie, S.J. (2001) “Greenstone: open source DL software.” Communications of the ACM, 44(5), pp. 47, May.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Boddie, S.J. (2001) “Greenstone: Open-source digital library software with end-user collection building.” Online Information Review, 25(5), pp. 288-298.
Witten, I.H., Loots, M., Trujillo, M.F. and Bainbridge, D. (2001) “The promise of digital libraries in developing countries.” Communications of the ACM, 44(5), pp. 82-85, May.
Witten, I.H., Loots, M., Trujillo, M.F. and Bainbridge, D. (2002) “The promise of digital libraries in developing countries.” The Electronic Library, 20(1), pp. 7-13. Expanded version of paper in Communications of the ACM.
Bell, T.C., Thimbleby, H., Fellows, M., Witten, I.H., Koblitz, N. and Powell, M. (2003) “Explaining cryptographic systems.” Computers and Education, 40(3), pp. 199-215, April. (Originally published in Proc First World Conference on Information Security Education (WISE), pp. 221-233, Stockholm University/Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1999).
Frank, E., Hall, M., Trigg, L., Holmes, G. and Witten, I.H. (2004) “Data mining in bioinformatics using Weka.” Bioinformatics, 20(15), pp. 2479-2481.
Paynter, G.W. and Witten, I.H. (2004) “Applying machine learning to programming by demonstration.” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 16(3), pp. 161-188, July-September.
Witten, I.H. (2004) “Adaptive text mining: Inferring structure from sequences.” J Discrete Algorithms, 2(2), pp. 137-159, June.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D., Cantlon, P. and Cunningham, S.J. (2004) “Digital libraries for creative communities.” Digital Creativity, 15(2), pp. 110-125, June.
Witten, I.H., Don, K.J., Dewsnip, M. and Tablan, V. (2004) “Text mining in a digital library.” Journal of Digital Libraries, 4(1), pp. 56-59, August.
Bainbridge, D., Dewsnip, M. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Searching digital music libraries (Expanded version of 2002 ICADL paper).” Information Processing and Management, 41(1), pp. 41-56.
Nichols, D.M., Witten, I.H., Keegan, T.T., Bainbridge, D. and Dewsnip, M. (2005) “Digital libraries and minority languages.” New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 11(2), pp. 139-155.
Gori, M. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “The bubble of Web visibility.” Communications of the ACM, 48(3), pp. 115-117.
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2005) “Creating digital library collections with Greenstone.” Library Hi tech, 23(4), pp. 541-560.
Wu, S., Witten, I.H., Edwards, A., Nichols, D. and Aquino, R. (2007) “A digital library of language learning exercises.” International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2(1).
Medelyan, O. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Domain Independent Automatic Keyphrase Indexing with Small Training Sets.” Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(7), pp. 1026-1040, March.
Witten, I. (2008) “Searching ... in a Web.” Journal of Universal Computer Science, 14(10), pp. 1739-1762, May.
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (In press, 2008) “A brief history of the Greenstone Digital Library Software.” Encyclopedia of Digital Libraries .
Liesaputra, V., Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2009) “Creating and reading realistic books.” IEEE Computer, pp. 72-81. February.
Wu, S., Franken, M. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “Refining the use of the web (and web search) as a language teaching and learning resource.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(3), pp. 249-268, July.
Medelyan, O., Milne, D., Legg, C. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “Mining meaning from Wikipedia.” International J. Human-Computer Studies, 67(9), pp. 716-754, September.
Hall, M., Frank, E., Holmes, G., Pfahringer, B., Reutemann, P. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “The WEKA Data Mining Software: An Update ” SIGKDD Explorations, 11(1), pp. 10-18, July.
Liesaputra, V. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “Computer graphics techniques for modeling page turning.” International Journal on Digital Libraries, 10(2-3), pp. 93-121, August.
Wu, S. and Witten, I.H. (2010) “First Person Singular: A digital library collection that helps second language learners express themselves.” International Journal of Digital Library Systems, 1(1), pp. 24-43, January-March.
Wu, S., Witten, I.H. and Franken, M. (2010) “Utilizing lexical data from a Web-derived corpus to expand productive collocation knowledge.” ReCALL, 22(01), pp. 83-102, January.
Liesaputra, V., Witten, I.H. (2012) “Realistic electronic books.” International Journal Human-Computer, 70(9), pp. 588-610, September.
Huang, L., Milne, D., Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (2012) “Learning a Concept-Based Document Similarity Measure.” J. American Society of Information Science and Technology, 63(8), pp. 1593-1608, July.
Milne, D. and Witten, I.H. (2013) “An open-source toolkit for mining Wikipedia.” Artificial Intelligence, (194), pp. 222-239, January.
Medelyan, A., Witten, I.H., Divoli, A. and Broekstra, J. (In press 2013 ) “Automatic construction of lexicons, taxonomies, ontologies and other knowledge structures.” WIREs Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.
Blake A.M., Witten, I.H., and Cree, M.J. (2013) “The Fastest Fourier Transform in the South.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 61(19), pp. 4707-4716, October..

Refereed journal correspondence

Witten, I.H. (1972) “Comments on 'Use of stochastic automata for parameter self-optimization with multimodal performance criteria'.” IEEE Trans Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-2, pp. 289-290, April.
Witten, I.H. (1973) “Finite-time performance of some two-armed bandit controllers.” IEEE Trans Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-3, pp. 194-197, March.
Witten, I.H. (1974) “On the asymptotic performances of finite-state two-armed bandit controllers.” IEEE Trans Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-4(5), pp. 465-467, September.
Gaines, B.R. and Witten, I.H. (1977) “Stability and admissibility of adaptive threshold logic convergence.” IEEE Trans Computers, C-26(1), pp. 88-91, January.
McCrea, P.G. and Witten, I.H. (1978) “Reducing noise in digital filters by residue retention.” Electronics Letters, 14, pp. 293-294, May.
Witten, I.H. and Madams, P.H.C. (1978) “A low-cost long-term stochastic integrator.” Electronics Letters, 14, pp. 293-294, May.
Witten, I.H. (1979) “On transferring fundamental frequency from one utterance to another.” JASA, 65(6), pp. 1576-1579, June.
Gaines, B.R. and Witten, I.H. (1980) “Identification of stochastic systems.” Int J General Systems.
Ha, Y.K. and Witten, I.H. (1980) “The stability of linear predictive descriptions of curves used in handwriting.” Electronics Letters, 16(24), pp. 909-911, November.
Bonham, M. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “More on 'A large font virtual terminal interface: a software prosthesis for the visually impaired'.” Communications of the ACM, 28(11), pp. 1236-1237, November.
Bell, T.C., Moffat, A., Witten, I.H. and Zobel, J. (1995) “The MG retrieval system: compressing for space and speed.” Communications of the ACM, 38(4), pp. 41-42, April.
Boyd, C., Cleary, J.G., Irvine, S.A., Rinsma-Melchert, I. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Integrating error detection into arithmetic coding.” IEEE Trans Communications, 45(1), pp. 1-3, January.

Refereed conference publications

Witten, I.H. (1973) “Non-linear control using stochastic computing techniques.” Proc 7th AICA Congress on Hybrid Computation, pp. 254-259, Prague, August.
Madams, P.H.C. and Witten, I.H. (1975) “A speaking computer output peripheral.” Proc Florence Conference on Digital Signal Processing, pp. 272-280, Florence, Italy, September.
Witten, I.H. (1976) “Generating natural speech from text.” Proc AISB Summer Conference, pp. 366-375, Edinburgh, UK, July.
Witten, I.H. and Gaines, B.R. (1976) “The role of randomness in system theory.” in Progress in cybernetics and systems research III, edited by R. Trappl, et al., pp. 11-18. Hemisphere, Washington, DC.
Witten, I.H. and Pope, R.J. (1976) “Rhythmic stress in synthetic speech-by-rule.” Proc Institute of Acoustics Autumn Conference, pp. 2/21/1-2/21/4, Edinburgh, UK, September.
Brazier, J.C.L., Madams, P.H.C. and Witten, I.H. (1977) “Digital generation of speech.” Proc IERE Conference on Digital Processing of Signals in Communication, pp. 449-455, Loughborough, UK, September.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “Exploring, modelling and controlling discrete sequential environments.” in Applied general systems research, edited by G.J. Klir, pp. 161-174. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “Software for speech output.” Proc IFIP Congress 77, pp. 297-301, Toronto, ON, August.
Witten, I.H. and Madams, P.H.C. (1977) “Experience with a man-machine system using synthetic speech.” Proc IEE Conference on Displays for Man-Machine Systems, pp. 138-141, April. IEE Conference Publication 150.
Witten, I.H. and Smith, A. (1977) “Synthesizing British English rhythm—a structured approach.” Proc Canadian Man-Computer Communication Conference, pp. 175-185, Calgary, AL, May.
Griffith, P. and Witten, I.H. (1979) “Low-cost hardware for real-time LPC analysis and synthesis of speech.” Proc Institute of Acoustics Autumn Conference, pp. 29-32, Windermere, November.
Hill, D.R., Jassem, W. and Witten, I.H. (1979) “A statistical approach to the problems of isochronicity.” in Current issues in linguistic theory Vol 9: Current issues in the phonetic sciences, edited by H. Hollien, et al., pp. 285-294. John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Semiotics in the real world: making interactive computers accessible to ideographic-language users.” in Applied systems and cybernetics (Proc International Congress on Applied Systems Research and Cybernetics), edited by G.E. Lasker. Pergamon.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Translating interactive computer dialogues from ideographic to alphabetic languages.” Proc Coling 80, Tokyo, Japan, September.
Witten, I.H. and Corbett, C. (1980) “An undergraduate microcomputer systems laboratory.” Proc IEE Conference on Electronic Engineering in the 80's, pp. 29/1-29/9, April. University of Hull.
Witten, I.H. (1981) “Programming by example for the casual user: a case study.” Proc Canadian Man-Computer Communication Conference, pp. 105-113, Waterloo, ON, June.
Witten, I.H. (1981) “Some recent results in non-deterministic modelling of behaviour sequences.” Proc Society for General Systems Research Annual Conference, pp. 265-274, Toronto, ON, January.
Bonham, M. and Witten, I.H. (1982) “A structured procedural document preparation language.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 6-12, Saskatoon, SASK, May.
Witten, I.H. (1982) “An interactive computer terminal interface which predicts user entries.” Proc IEE Conference on Man-Machine Interaction, pp. 1-5, Manchester, England, July.
Witten, I.H., Cleary, J.G., Darragh, J.J. and Hill, D.R. (1982) “Reducing keystroke counts with a predictive computer interface.” Proc IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computing to Aid the Handicapped, pp. 3-10, Charlottesville, VA, November.
Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J. (1983) “Picture coding and transmission using adaptive modelling of quad trees.” Proc International Electrical, Electronics Conference, 1, pp. 222-225, September.
Witten, I.H., Cleary, J.G. and Darragh, J.J. (1983) “The reactive keyboard: a new technology for text entry.” Converging Technologies: Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 151-156, Ottawa, ON, May.
Witten, I.H., Greenberg, S. and Cleary, J. (1983) “Personalizable directories: a case study in automatic user modelling.” Proc Graphics Interface 83, pp. 183-189, Edmonton, AL, May.
Birtwistle, G., Cleary, J.G., Joyce, J., Liblong, B., Unger, B.W., Witten, I.H. and Wyvill, B.L.M. (1984) “A simulation environment.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 290-296, Calgary, AL, May.
Bonham, M. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Towards distributed document preparation with interactive and noninteractive viewing.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 365-372, Calgary, AL, May.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Comparison of menu displays for ordered lists.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 464-469, Calgary, AL, May.
Hill, D.R., Dohrn, C., Darragh, J., Esau, R., Levinson, D., Unger, B. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Using speech output as a medium for human-computer dialogue.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 470-476, Calgary, AL, May.
Hill, D.R., Witten, I.H., Neal, R. and Lomow, G. (1984) “Jecl and Hide: practical questions for the Jade user interface.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 373-380, Calgary, AL, May.
Neal, R.M., Lomow, G.A., Peterson, M.W., Unger, B.W. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Inter-process communication in a distributed programming environment.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 361-364, Calgary, AL, May.
Unger, B., Birtwistle, G., Cleary, J., Hill, D., Lomow, G., Neal, R., Peterson, M., Witten, I.H. and Wyvill, B. (1984) “Jade: a simulation and software prototyping environment.” Proc Conference on Simulation in Strongly Typed Languages, San Diego, CA, February.
Witten, I.H. (1984) “Dynamic documents.” Proc PROTEXT I—First International Conference on Text Processing Systems, pp. 234-239, Dublin, Ireland, October. Boole Press.
Bonham, M. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “Shape—a unifying concept in document layout.” Proc PROTEXT II—Second International Conference on Text Processing Systems, pp. 126-132, Dublin, Ireland, October. Boole Press.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1985) “Interactive end-user creation of workbench hierarchies within a window system.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 408-416, Montreal, QUE, May.
Greenberg, S., Peterson, M. and Witten, I.H. (1986) “Issues and experiences in the design of a window management system.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 33-44, Edmonton, AL.
Kwok, P. and Witten, I.H. (1987) “Reducing halftone pictures.” Proc Canadian Information Processing Society Conference, pp. 459-466, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May.
MacDonald, B.A. and Witten, I.H. (1987) “Programming computer controlled systems by non-experts.” Proc IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Annual Conference, pp. 432-437, Virginia, October 20-23.
Witten, I.H. (1987) “A course on 'expert systems' for electrical engineering students.” Proc ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, pp. 257-260, St Louis, MO, February. (published as SIGCSE Bulletin 19(1)).
Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J.G. (1987) “Inductive modeling for data compression.” Proc Fourth International Symposium on Modelling and Simulation Methodology, Tucson, AZ, January. Also available as Research Report 87/254/02, Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary.
Witten, I.H. and MacDonald, B.A. (1987) “Concept learning: a practical tool for knowledge acquisition.” Proc 7th International Workshop on Expert Systems and their Application, pp. 1535-1555, Avignon, France, May.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1988) “Directing the user interface: how people use command-based computer systems.” Proc 3rd IFAC Conference on Man-Machine Systems, 2, pp. 299-305, Oulu, Finland, June.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1988) “How users repeat their actions on computers: principles for design of history mechanisms.” Proc CHI 88 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 171-178, Washington, DC, May.
Krawchuk, B.J. and Witten, I.H. (1988) “On asking the right questions.” Proc Fifth International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 15-21, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June.
Krawchuk, B.J. and Witten, I.H. (1988) “Problem solvers that learn.” Proc Third European Working Session on Learning, pp. 93-106, Glasgow, Scotland, October 3-5. Turing Institute.
Maulsby, D.L. and Witten, I.H. (1988) “Acquiring graphical know-how: an apprenticeship model.” Proc European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 88, pp. 34/1-34/16, Bonn, West Germany, June.
Witten, I.H. and MacDonald, B.A. (1988) “Building models from examples.” Proc SCS Multiconference on Artificial Intelligence and Simulation, pp. 13-18, San Diego, February.
Witten, I.H., MacDonald, B.A. and Greenberg, S. (1988) “Specifying procedures to office systems.” in Automating Systems Development, edited by D. Benyon, et al., pp. 477-500. Plenum Press, New York. (Proc International Conference on computer-based tools for information systems analysis, design, and implementation; Leicester, April 1987).
Allan, J.B., Wyvill, B. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “A methodology for direct manipulation of polygon meshes.” in New advances in computer graphics, edited by R.A. Earnshaw, et al., pp. 451-469. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo. (Proc Computer Graphics International; Leeds, UK, June 1989).
Maulsby, D.L., James, G.A. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Evaluating interaction in knowledge acquisition: a case study.” Proc European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 89, pp. 406-419, Paris, France, July.
Maulsby, D.L., Kittlitz, K.A. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Constraint-solving in interactive graphics: a user-friendly approach.” in New advances in computer graphics, edited by R.A. Earnshaw, et al., pp. 305-318. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo. (Proc Computer Graphics International; Leeds, UK, June 1989).
Maulsby, D.L. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Inducing programs in a direct-manipulation environment.” Proc CHI 89 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 57-62, Austin, TX, May.
Maulsby, D.L. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Teaching a mouse how to draw.” Graphics Interface '89, pp. 130-137, London, Ontario, June.
Witten, I.H. and MacDonald, B.A. (1989) “The other side of the coin: teaching artificial learning systems.” in Computer Assisted Learning, edited by H.Maurer, pp. 603-617. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin. (Proc International Conference on Computer-Aided Learning; Dallas, TX, May 1989).
Smith, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1990) “A planning mechanism for generating story text.” Proc 17th Int Assoc for Literary and Linguistic Computing Conf and 10th Int Conf on Computing and the Humanities, Seigen, Germany, June 1990. (Extended abstract).
Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1990) “Statistical models of language use.” in Empirical foundations of Information and Software Science V, edited by P. Zunde, et al., pp. 269-280. Plenum, New York. (Proc Sixth Symposium on Empirical Foundations of Information and Software Sciences; Atlanta, GA, October 1988).
Lewis, J.D. and Witten, I.H. (1991) “Delaying commitment in dynamic stereo vision.” Proc Vision Interface '91, pp. 49-55, June. Calgary, Alberta.
Witten, I.H., Bell, T.C. and Nevill, C.G. (1991) “Models for compression in full-text retrieval systems.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 23-32. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Sharman, N.B., Bell, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1992) “Compression of pyramid coded images for progressive transmission.” Proc 7th New Zealand Image Processing Workshop, pp. 171-176, Christchurch, New Zealand, August.
Witten, I.H., Bell, T.C., Harrison, M.E., James, M.L. and Moffat, A. (1992) “Textual image compression.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 42-51, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Moffat, A., Sharman, N., Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1993) “An empirical evaluation of coding methods for multi-symbol alphabets.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 108-117, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1993) “Getting research students started: a tale of two courses.” SIGCSE Bulletin, 25(1), pp. 165-169. (Proc SIGCSE Technical Symposium, 1993).
Witten, I.H., Cunningham, S.J., Holmes, G., McQueen, R.J. and Smith, L.A. (1993) “Practical machine learning and its potential application to problems in agriculture.” Proc NZ Computer Conference, 1, pp. 308-325, Auckland, August.
Zahran, H., Witten, I.H., Inglis, S. and Montgomery, G. (1993) “Extracting terrain information from paper maps and satellite data.” Proc NZ Computer Conference, 2, pp. 356-369, Auckland, August.
Zaidah, R., Zahran, H. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Supporting operations planning—a multimedia approach.” Proc NZ Computer Conference, 1, pp. 132-142, Auckland, August.
Bell, T.C., Moffat, A. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Compressing the digital library.” Proc Digital Libraries '94, pp. 41-46, College Station, Texas, June.
Holmes, G., Donkin, A. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “WEKA: A machine learning workbench.” Proc Australia and New Zealand Conference on Intelligent Information Systems, pp. 357-361, Brisbane, Australia, November.
Inglis, S. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Compression-based template matching.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 106-115, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Witten, I.H. and Maulsby, D.L. (1994) “Compression by induction of hierarchical grammars.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 244-253, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Smith, T.C., Witten, I.H., Cleary, J.G. and Legg, S. (1994) “Objective evaluation of inferred context free grammars.” Proc Australia and New Zealand Conference on Intelligent Information Systems, pp. 392-396, Brisbane, Australia, November.
Bell, T.C., Bensemann, G. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Computer Science Unplugged: Capturing the interest of the uninterested.” Proc NZ Computer Conference, pp. 209-214, Wellington, New Zealand, August. (published as NZ Journal of Computing 6(1B)).
Cleary, J.G., Teahan, W.J. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Unbounded length contexts for PPM.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 52-61, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Garner, S.R., Holmes, G., McQueen, R.J. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Machine learning from agricultural databases: practice and experience.” Proc NZ Computer Conference, pp. 75-82, Wellington, New Zealand, August. (published as NZ Journal of Computing 6(1A)).
Inglis, S. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Document zone classification using machine learning.” Proc Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications, pp. 631-636, Brisbane, Australia, December.
Moffat, A., Neal, R. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Arithmetic coding revisited.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 202-211, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Holmes, G. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “The development of Holte's 1R classifier.” Proc ANNES'95, pp. 239-242, Dunedin, New Zealand, November.
Smith, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “A genetic algorithm for the induction of natural language grammars.” Proc IJCAI-95 Workshop on New Approaches to Learning for Natural Language Processing, pp. 17-24, Montreal, Canada.
Smith, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Probability-driven lexical classification: a corpus-based approach.” Proc Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics Conference, pp. 271-283, Brisbane, Australia, April.
Witten, I.H., Cunningham, S.J., Vallabh, M. and Bell, T.C. (1995) “A New Zealand digital library for computer science research.” Proc Digital Libraries '95, pp. 25-30, Austin, Texas, June.
Cleary, J., Holmes, G., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (1996) “MetaData for database mining.” Proc IEEE Metadata Conference, Silver Spring, MD, April 16-18. (published electronically).
Cleary, J.G., Legg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1996) “An MDL estimate of the significance of rules.” Proc ISIS: Information, Statistics and Induction in Science, pp. 43-53, Melbourne, Australia, August.
Maulsby, D. and Witten, I.H. (1996) “Machine learning in programming by demonstration: lessons learned from CIMA.” in Acquisition, learning and demonstration: Automating tasks for users (Proc AAAI Symposium, Stanford), edited by Y. Gil, pp. 66-72. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA.
McNab, R.J., Smith, L.A. and Witten, I.H. (1996) “Signal processing for melody transcription.” Proc Australasian Computer Science Conference, pp. 301-307, Melbourne, Australia, January.
McNab, R.J., Smith, L.A., Witten, I.H., Henderson, C.L. and Cunningham, S.J. (1996) “Towards the digital music library: tune retrieval from acoustic input.” Proc Digital Libraries '96, pp. 11-18, Maryland, USA, March. ACM Press, New York.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Witten, I.H. and Olsen, D.R. (1996) “Compressing semi-structured text using hierarchical phrase identification.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 63-72, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Witten, I.H., Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Cunningham, S.J. (1996) “Building a digital library for computer science research: technical issues.” Proc Australasian Computer Science Conference, pp. 534-542, Melbourne, Australia, January.
Witten, I.H., Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Maulsby, D.L. (1996) “Interacting with learning agents: implications for ML from HCI.” Workshop on Machine Learning meets Human-Computer Interaction, ML'96, pp. 51-58, Bari, Italy, July.
Beale, R., McNab, R.J. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Visualising sequences of queries: a new tool for information retrieval.” Proc IEEE Conf on Information Visualisation, pp. 57-62, London, England, August.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Linear-time, incremental hierarchy inference for compression.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 3-11, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Nevill-Manning, C.G., Witten, I.H. and Paynter, G.W. (1997) “Browsing in digital libraries: a phrase-based approach.” Proc ACM Digital Libraries 97, pp. 230-236, Philadelphia, PA, July.
Smith, L.A., McNab, R.J. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Music information retrieval using audio input.” Proc AAAI Spring Symposium on Intelligent Integration and Use of Text, Image, Video and Audio Corpora, pp. 12-16, Stanford, CA, March.
Ting, K.M. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Stacked generalization: when does it work?” Proc International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 866-871, Japan, August.
Ting, K.M. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Stacking bagged and dagged models.” Proc International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 367-375, Nashville, Tennessee, July.
Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Generating accurate rule sets without global optimization.” Proc International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 144-151, Madison, Wisconsin, August.
Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Using a permutation test for attribute selection in decision trees.” Proc International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 152-160, Madison, Wisconsin, August.
McNab, R.J., Witten, I.H. and Boddie, S.J. (1998) “A distributed digital library architecture incorporating different index styles.” Proc IEEE Advances in Digital Libraries (ADL'98), pp. 36-45, Santa Barbara, CA, April.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Inferring lexical and grammatical structure from sequences.” Proc Compression and complexity of sequences, edited by B. Carpentieri, et al., pp. 265-274, Positano, Italy, June. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Phrase hierarchy inference and compression in bounded space.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 179-188, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Witten, I.H., Cunningham, S.J., Rogers, W.J., McNab, R. and Boddie, S. (1998) “Distributing digital libraries on the Web, CD-ROMs, and Intranets: Same information, same look-and-feel, different media.” East meets West: Proc First Asia Digital Library Workshop, edited by J. Yen, et al., pp. 98-105, Hong Kong, August.
Bainbridge, D., Nevill-Manning, C., Witten, I.H., Smith, L.A. and McNab, R.J. (1999) “Towards a digital library of popular music.” Proc Digital Libraries '99, pp. 161-169, Berkley, CA, August.
Frank, E., Paynter, G.W., Witten, I.H., Gutwin, C. and Nevill-Manning, C. (1999) “Domain-specific keyphrase extraction.” Proc Int Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 668-673, Stockholm, Sweden, July. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA.
Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Making better use of global discretization.” Proc International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 115-123, Bled, Slovenia, June.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Protein is incompressible.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 257-266, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Witten, I.H., Bray, Z., Mahoui, M. and Teahan, W.J. (1999) “Text mining: a new frontier for lossless compression.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A.S. Cohn, pp. 198-207, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Paynter, G.W., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Evaluating extracted phrases and extending thesauri.” Proc Asian Digital Libraries Conference, pp. 131-138, Seoul, Korea, December.
Paynter, G.W. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Developing a practical programming by demonstration tool.” Proc OZCHI, pp. 307-314, Sydney, Australia, December.
Paynter, G.W., Witten, I.H., Cunningham, S.J. and Buchanan, G. (2000) “Scalable browsing for large collections: a case study.” Proc Digital Libraries 2000, pp. 215-223, San Antonio, Texas, June.
Witten, I.H. (2000) “Applications of lossless compression in adaptive text mining.” Proc Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, CISS 2000, 2, pp. TP6-13 to TP6-18, Princeton, New Jersey, March.
Witten, I.H. (2000) “Browsing around a digital library: Today and tomorrow.” Proc Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching, pp. 12-26, University of Montreal, June.
Witten, I.H., McNab, R.J., Boddie, S.J. and Bainbridge, D. (2000) “Greenstone: A comprehensive open-source digital library software system.” Proc Digital Libraries 2000, pp. 113-121, San Antonio, Texas, June.
Yeates, S. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “On tag insertion and its complexity.” Proc PRICAI'2000 Workshop on Text and Data Mining, pp. 52-63, Melbourne, Australia, August.
Bainbridge, D., Buchanan, G., McPherson, J., Jones, S., Mahoui, A. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “Greenstone: A platform for distributed digital library applications.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 137-148, Darmstadt, Germany, September.
Keegan, T., Apperley, M., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “The Niupepa collection: Opening the blinds on a window to the past.” Proc ICHIM: Cultural Heritage and Technologies in the Third Millennium, edited by D. Bearman, et al., pp. 347-356, Milan, Italy, September.
Paynter, G.W. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “A combined phrase and thesaurus browser for large document collections.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 25-36, Darmstadt, Germany, September.
Turpin, A., Frank, E., Hall, M., Witten, I.H. and Johnson, C.A. (2001) “Determining progression in glaucoma using visual fields.” Proc Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 136-147, Hong Kong, April.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Boddie, S.J. (2001) “Power to the people: end-user building of digital library collections.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 94-103, Roanoke, VA, June.
Yeates, S., Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2001) “Tag insertion complexity.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 243-252, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA.
Bainbridge, D., Dewsnip, M. and Witten, I.H. (2002) “Searching digital music libraries.” in Digital libraries: People, knowledge, and technology (Proc Int Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, Singapore, December), edited by E.-P. Lim, et al., pp. 129-140. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Wang, Y. and Witten, I.H. (2002) “Modeling for optimal probability prediction.” Proc Int Conf on Machine Learning, pp. 650-657, Sydney, Australia, July.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D., Paynter, G.W. and Boddie, S. (2002) “The Greenstone plugin architecture.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 285-286, Portland, Oregon, July.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D., Paynter, G.W. and Boddie, S. (2002) “Importing documents and metadata into digital libraries: requirements analysis and an extensible architecture.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 390-405, Rome, Italy, September.
Bainbridge, D., Edgar, K.D., McPherson, J.R. and Witten, I.H. (2003) “Managing change in a digital library system with many interface languages.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries ECDL2003, pp. 350-361, Trondheim, Norway, August.
Bainbridge, D., Thompson, J. and Witten, I.H. (2003) “Assembling and enriching digital library collections.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 323-334, Houston, Texas, May.
Chu, Y.-C., Witten, I.H., Lobb, R. and Bainbridge, D. (2003) “How to turn the page.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 186-188, Houston, Texas, May.
Edgar, K.D., Nichols, D.M., Paynter, G.W., Thomson, K. and Witten, I.H. (2003) “A user evaluation of hierarchical phrase browsing.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL 2003), pp. 313-324, Trondheim, Norway, August.
Wen, Y., Witten, I.H. and Wang, D. (2003) “Token identification using HMM and PPM models.” in Proc 16th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Perth, December. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Bainbridge, D., Don, K.J., Buchanan, G.R., Witten, I.H., Jones, S.R., Jones, M. and Barr, M.I. (2004) “Dynamic digital library construction and configuration.” Proc European Digital Library Conference ECDL2004, edited by R. Heery, et al., pp. 1-13, Bath, England, September.
Bainbridge, D., Thompson, J. and Witten, I.H. (2004) “Greenstone digital library software: current research.” Proceedings of the Fourth ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 416, Tuscan, Arizona, June.
Chu, Y.-C., Bainbridge, D., Jones, M. and Witten, I.H. (2004) “Realistic books: A bizarre homage to an obsolete medium?” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, edited by H. Chen, et al., pp. 78-86, Tucson, Arizona, June.
Deo, S., Nichols, D.M., Cunningham, S.J., Witten, I.H. and Trujillo, M.F. (2004) “Digital library access for illiterate users.” International Research Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT2004), pp. 506-516, Dubai, UAE University, October.
Witten, I.H. (2004) “Digital libraries: developing countries, universal access, and information for all.” Proc International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, , pp. 35-44, Shanghai, China, December.
Buchanan, G., Bainbridge, D., Don, K. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “A new framework for building digital library collections.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 23-31, Denver, Colorado, USA, June.
Jaballah, I., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Managing personal documents with a digital library.” Proc SETIT 2005: Sciences of Electronic Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, Tunisia, March.
Jaballah, I., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Managing personal documents with a digital library.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL 2005), edited by A. Rauber, et al., pp. 195-206, Vienna, Austria, September.
Zhang, Y., Oard, D., Howarth, L. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Multilingual digital libraries: research and practice.” Proc American Society for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, pp. 1143-1146, Charlotte, North Carolina, October.
Zhang, A.B., Witten, I.H., Olson, T.A. and Sheble, L. (2005) “Greenstone in practice: Implementations of an open source digital library system.” Proc American Society for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, pp. 769-794, Charlotte, North Carolina, October.
Medelyan, O. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Thesaurus-based index term extraction for agricultural documents.” 6th Agricultural Ontology Service (AOS) Workshop at EFITA (European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture) and WCCA (World Congress on Computers in Agriculture), Vila Real, Portugal, July.
Bredin, H., Miguel, A., Witten, I.H., Chollet G. (2006) “Detecting replay attacks in audiovisual identity verification.” Proc IEEE International Conference on Accoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Toulouse, France, May.
Wu, S. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Towards a digital library for language learning.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL 2006), pp. 341-352, Alicante, Spain, September. 17th - 22nd September.
Medelyan, O. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Thesaurus based automatic keyphrase indexing.” Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 296-297, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June.
Medelyan, O. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Measuring inter-indexer consistency using a thesaurus.” Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 274-275, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June.
Bainbridge, D., Osborn, W., Witten, I.H., Milne, D. and Nichols, D. (2006) “Extending Greenstone for Institutional Repositories.” Proc International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, pp. 303-312, Kyoto, Japan, November.
Bainbridge, D., Ke, K.-Y.J. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Document level interoperability for collection creators.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 105-106, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June.
Wu, S. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Towards a digital library for language learning.” International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning (ICL), Villach, Austria, September.
Milne, D., Medelyan, O. and Witten, I.H. (2006) “Mining Domain-Specific Thesauri from Wikipedia: A case study.” Proc IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, WI'06, pp. 442-448, Hong Kong, China, December.
Witten, I.H., Medelyan, O. and Milne, D. (2006) “Finding documents and reading them: Semantic metadata extraction, topic browsing and realistic books.” Proc Russian Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 36-45, Suzdal, Russia, October.
Bainbridge, D., Osborn, W., Witten, I.H., and Nichols, D. (2006) “Extending Greenstone for Institutional Repositories.” Proc International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, pp. 303-312, Kyoto, Japan, November.
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2007) “A retrospective look at Greenstone: Lessons from the first decade.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 147-156, June.
Liesaputra, V., Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2007) “Lightweight realistic books: The Greenstone connection.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries, Vancouver, pp. 502, June.
Wu, S. and Witten, I.H. (2007) “Content-Based Language Learning in a Digital Library.” Proc International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, pp. 424-433, Hanoi, Vietnam, December.
Milne, D., Witten, I.H. and Nichols, D.M. (2007) “A knowledge based search engine powered by Wikipedia.” Proc CIKM Information and Knowledge Management Conference, pp. 445-454, Portugal, November.
Milne, D.N., Nichols, D.M. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “A competitive environment for exploratory query expansion.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries , pp. 197-200, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June.
Liesaputra, V. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Seeking information in realistic books: A user study.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries 2008, pp. 29-38, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June.
Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “A Fedora Librarian Interface.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries 2008, pp. 407-416, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June.
Bainbridge, D., Jones, S., McIntosh, S., Jones, M. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Portable digital libraries on an iPod.” Proc Joint Conference of Digital Libraries 2008, pp. 333-336, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June.
Milne, D. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “An effective, low-cost measure of semantic relatedness obtained from Wikipedia links.” Proc Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence: An Evolving Synergy , pp. 25-30, Chicago, U.S.A., July.
Medelyan, O., Witten, I.H. and Milne, D. (2008) “Topic indexing with Wikipedia.” Proc Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence: An Evolving Synergy, pp. 10-24, Chicago, U.S.A., July.
Milne, D. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Learning to link with Wikipedia.” Proc Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 509-518, Napa Valley, California, USA, October.
Hempstalk, K., Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “One-class classification by combining density and class probability estimation.” Proc European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases, pp. 505-519, Antwerp, Belgium, September.
Huang, A., Witten, I.H., Frank, E. and Milne, D. (2008) “Clustering Document with Active Learning using Wikipedia.” Proc International Conference on Data Mining, pp. 839-844, Pisa, Italy, December.
Osborn, W., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I. (2008) “A user-oriented approach to scheduling collection building in Greenstone.” Proc Digital Libraries: Universal and Ubiquitous Access to Information, pp. 236-245, November. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Bainbridge, D., Jones, S., McIntosh, S., Witten, I.H. and Jones, M. (2008) “Beyond the client-server model: Self-contained portable digital libraries.” Proc Digital Libraries: Universal and ubiquitous access to Information. Best Paper Award., 5362/2008, pp. 294-303, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, December. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Bainbridge, D., Witten, I.H., Boddie, S. and Thompson, J. (2009) “Stress-Testing general purpose digital library software.” Proc Euroean Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 203-214, Corfu, Greece, September-October. Springer.
Huang, A., Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “Clustering document using a Wikipedia-based concept representation.” Proc Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 628-636, Bangkok, Thailand, April.
Medelyan, O., Frank, E. and Witten, I.H. (2009) “Human-competitive tagging using automatic keyphrase extraction.” Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language, pp. 1318-1327, Singapore, August.
Liesaputra, V., Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2009) “Searching in a book.” European Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 442-446, Corfu, Greece, September/October.
Medelyan, O., Perrone, V. and Witten, I.H. (2010) “Subject metadata support powered by Maui.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 407-408, Gold Coast, Australia, June, New York.
Nichols, D.M., Rose, J., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2010) “Experiences with the greenstone digital library software for international development.” Digital Libraries for International Development Workshop, Gold Coast, Australia, June.
Witten, I.H., Wu, S. and Yu, X. (2011) “Linking Digital Libraries to Courses.” International Conference on Computer Supported Education, pp. 5-14, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, May.
Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2011) “Perambulating libraries: demonstrating how a Victorian idea can help OLPC users share books.” Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 471-472, Ottawa, Canada, June. May.
Medelyan, O., Manion, S., Broekstra, J., Divoli, A., Huang, L. and Witten, I.H. (In press, 2013) “Constructing a Focused Taxonomy from a Document Collection.” European Semantic Web Conference, Montpelier, France, May.

Books

Witten, I.H. (1980) Communicating with microcomputers. Academic Press, London, England.
Witten, I.H. (1982) Principles of computer speech. Academic Press, London, England.
Witten, I.H. (1986) Making computers talk: an introduction to speech synthesis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Bell, T.C., Cleary, J.G. and Witten, I.H. (1990) Text compression. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Darragh, J.J. and Witten, I.H. (1992) The reactive keyboard. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
Witten, I.H., Moffat, A. and Bell, T.C. (1994) Managing gigabytes: compressing and indexing documents and images. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Bridges, D.S., Calude, C.S., Gibbons, J., Reeves, S. and Witten, I.H. (1996) Combinatorics, complexity, and logic. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Witten, I.H., Akscyn, R. and Shipman, F.M. (1998) Digital Libraries 98: Proceedings of the third ACM conference on digital libraries. ACM Press, New York. (Conference held in Pittsburgh, PA).
Witten, I.H., Moffat, A. and Bell, T.C. (1999) Managing gigabytes: compressing and indexing documents and images. (second edition) Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA.
Bell, T., Witten, I.H. and Fellows, M. (1999) Computer Science Unplugged: Offline activities and games for all ages (original book). Available from http://csunplugged.org.
Bell, T.C., Witten, I.H., Fellows, M., McKenzie, J. and Adam, R. (2002) Computer Science Unplugged: An enrichment and extension programme for primary-aged children. Available from http://csunplugged.org., .
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2003) How to build a digital library. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA.
Witten, I.H. and Frank, E. (2005) Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. (second edition). Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA.
Bell, T.C., Witten, I.H. and Fellows, M. (2006) Computer Science Unplugged: Offline activities and games for all ages (in Korean). Seoul, Korea. Hongreung Science Publishing.
Witten, I.H., Gori, M. and Numerico, T. (2007) Web Dragons: inside the myths of search engine technology. Morgan Kaufman Publishers, San Francisco, C.A.
Bell, T.C., Witten, I.H., Fellows, M., WonGyu, L., McKenzie, J. and Adam, R. (2007) Computer Science Unplugged: Offline activities and games for all ages (in Japanese). Tokyo. Etext.
Chakrabarti, S., Cox, E., Frank, E., Guting, R.H., Han, J., Jiang, X., Kamber, M., Livingstone, S.S., Nadeau, T.P., Neapolitan, R.E., Pyle, D., Refaat, M., Schneider, M., Teorey, T.J. and Witten, I.H. (2008) Data Mining: Know it all. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Nichols, D.M. (2009) How to Build a Digital Library. (Second Edition). Morgan Kaufmann.
Bell, T., Arpaci-Dusseau, A., Witten, I.H. and Fellows, M. (2010) Computer Science Unplugged: Understanding computing through games and puzzles. Hubei: Huazhong University of Science & Technology Press.
Witten, I.H., Frank, E. and Hall, M.A. (2011) Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. (Third Edition). Morgan Kaufmann, USA.

Booklets

Witten, I.H. and Open University TM221 Course Team (1975) Operating systems. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, England.
Witten, I.H. and Open University TM221 Course Team (1975) The representation and storage of information. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, England.
Witten, I.H. and Open University PT501 Course Team (1979) Introduction to microprocessors. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, England.
Witten, I.H. and Open University PT502 Course Team (1982) Software design of microprocessor-based products. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, England.
Witten, I.H. (1985) Selected topics in computer science I. Institute for Information Processing, Graz, Austria, November.

Book Section

Witten, I.H., Paynter, G.W., Frank, E., Gutwin, C. and Nevill-Manning, C.G. (2005) “KEA: Practical automatic keyphrase extraction.” in Design and Usability of Digital Libraries : Case Studies in the Asia Pacific, edited by Y.L. Theng, et al., pp. 129-152. Information Science Publishing.
Nichols, D.M., Keegan, T., Bainbridge, D., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2007) “Internationalizing Greenstone: A multilingual tool for building digital libraries.” in Universal Usability, Designing Information Systems for Diverse Users, edited by J. Lazar, pp. 559-586 John Wiley and Sons, London.
Hinze, A., Buchanan, G., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Semantics in Greenstone.” Semantic Digital Libraries, edited by S.R. Kruk, et al., pp. 163-175, November. Springer-Verlag. Preprint available online: Greenstone: a platform for semantic digital libraries.
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2009) “Case study: The Greenstone Digital Library Software.” ICT4D: Information and communication technology for development, edited by T. Unwin, pp. 84-85, February. Cambridge University Press.
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2009 & 2011) “Case study: The Greenstone Digital Library Software.” ICT4D: Information and Communication Technology for Development, edited by T. Unwin, pp. 84-85, February. Cambridge University Press. Also published in Green Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Application. pp. 124-135, March. Information Resources Management Association.
Witten, I.H. (2008) “Data mining algorithms - Part I.” Data Fundamentals and latest development, The Marketing and Management Collection, Henry Stewart Talks Ltd, edited by T. Breur, London.
Witten, I.H. (2008) “Data mining algorithms - Part II.” Data Fundamentals and latest development, The Marketing and Management Collection, Henry Stewart Talks Ltd, edited by T. Breur, London.
Witten, I.H. and Spano, D. (2010) “Greenstone en AmŽrica Latina: Una ola expansiva de m‡s de 11.000km ” Greenstone: Un software libre de c—digo abierto para la construcci—n de bibliotecas digitales. Experiencias en AmŽrica Latina y el Caribe , edited by U. G. Cyranek, Montevideo, Uruguay, pp. 21-32.
Wu, S., Witten, I.H.W. and Franken, M. (2010) “Supporting collocation learning with a digital library.” Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal, 23(1), pp. 87-110, February.
Osborn, W., Fox, S., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2011) “Automating the Maintenance of Greenstone Collections.” Digital Libraries - Methods and Applications , edited by K.H. Huang, pp. 137-150, April. InTech.
Witten, I.H., Frank, E. and Hall, M.A. (2011) Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. (Third Edition). Morgan Kaufmann, USA.
Osborn, W., Fox, S., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2011) “Automating the Maintenance of Greenstone Collections.” Digital Libraries - Methods and Applications , edited by K.H. Huang, pp. 137-150, April. InTech.
Witten, I.H., Frank, E. and Hall, M.A. (2011) Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. (Third Edition). Morgan Kaufmann, USA.
Wu, S., Franken, M. and Witten, I.H. (2012) “Collocation Games from a Language Corpus.” Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching, edited by H. Reinders, pp. 209-229, August. Macmillian Publishers, England.

Invited papers

Witten, I.H. (1973) “Human and automatic adaptive controllers.” Proc IEE Colloquium on Computer Structures for Artificial Intelligence, May.
Witten, I.H. (1974) “Speech synthesis by rule for man-machine interaction.” Proc IEE Colloquium on Speech Synthesis and Recognition, February.
Witten, I.H. (1976) “Stochastic implementation of learning controllers.” Proc IEE Colloquium on Parallel Digital Computing Methods, April.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “Learning to control sequential and non-sequential environments.” J Cybernetics and Information Science, 1, pp. 95-111, Spring-Summer-Fall.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Mains wiring: a ready-made path for remote switching systems.” Electrical Review, pp. 31-33, March.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Voice response.” Proc BIT Conference on Advanced Word Processing, London, England, January.
Witten, I.H. (1982) “Non-deterministic modelling and its application in adaptive optimal control.” Proc International Conference on Mathematical Learning Models—Theory and Algorithms, Bad Honnef, Germany, May.
Jassem, W., Hill, D.R. and Witten, I.H. (1984) “Isochrony in English speech: its statistical validity and linguistic relevance.” in Intonation, Accent and Rhythm, edited by D. Gibbon, et al., pp. 203-225. de Gruyter, Berlin.
Witten, I.H. and Fremont, D. (1984) “A student information service for a University Computer Science department.” Proc 15th Ontario Universities Computing Conference, Thunder Bay, ON, June.
Witten, I.H. (1987, 1991) “Computer speech.” in The Encyclopaedia of Physical Science and Technology, Volume 3, edited by R.A. Meyers, pp. 482-506. Academic Press (the 1991 version is a slightly updated one).
Witten, I.H. and Gaines, B.R. (1988) “Research in the knowledge sciences at the University of Calgary.” Canadian AI, 17, pp. 25-30, October. Reprinted in Artificial Intelligence in Canada, National Research Council, January 1991.
Witten, I.H. and Maulsby, D.L. (1988) “I, Metamouse.” Proc Symposium 'Ten Years IIG', pp. 198-210, Graz, Austria, June.
Masrani, R. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Editorial.” Canadian Artificial Intelligence, pp. 3-4, January.
Witten, I.H. (1990) “Computer (in)security—infiltrating open systems.” in Computers under attack, edited by P.J. Denning, pp. 105-142. ACM Press/Addison Wesley. (reprinted from Abacus 4(4): 6-25; Summer 1987).
Witten, I.H. (1991) “Font design.” in Encyclopaedia of microcomputers Vol 7, edited by A. Kent, et al., pp. 273-297 (Chapter 14). Marcel Dekker, New York. Reprinted in Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science, Vol 51, edited by A. Kent, Marcel Dekker, 1993, pp.231-257.
Witten, I.H. and Maulsby, D.L. (1991) “Evaluating programs formed by example: an informational heuristic.” in New results and new trends in computer science, edited by H. Maurer, pp. 388-402. Springer-Verlag (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series), Berlin.
Finlay, J., Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Software personalization.” in Encyclopaedia of Computer Science and Engineering (3rd edition), edited by A. Ralston, et al., pp. 1240-1241. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Greenberg, S. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “User interface.” in Encyclopaedia of Computer Science and Engineering (3rd edition), edited by A. Ralston, et al., pp. 1411-1414. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Maulsby, D. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “Metamouse: An instructible agent for programming by demonstration.” in Watch what I do: programming by demonstration, edited by A.Cypher, pp. 154-181. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Thimbleby, H. and Witten, I.H. (1993) “User modeling as machine identification: new design methods for HCI.” in Advances in human-computer interaction, Volume 4, edited by H.R. Hartson, et al., pp. 58-86. Ablex, Norwood, NJ.
Witten, I.H. (1993) “Computer virus.” in Encyclopaedia of Computer Science and Engineering (3rd edition), edited by A. Ralston, et al., pp. 329-330. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Witten, I.H. (1993) “A predictive calculator.” in Watch what I do: programming by demonstration, edited by A.Cypher, pp. 66-76. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Witten, I.H. and Mo, D. (1993) “TELS: Learning text editing tasks from examples.” in Watch what I do: programming by demonstration, edited by A.Cypher, pp. 182-203. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Greenberg, S., Darragh, J.J., Maulsby, D.L. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Predictive interfaces: what will they think of next?” in Extra-ordinary human-computer interaction: interfaces for users with disabilities, edited by A.D.N. Edwards, pp. 103-140. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Witten, I.H. (1995) “PBD systems: when will they ever learn?” PBD Workshop, ML'95, pp. 1-9, Tahoe City, CA, July.
Witten, I.H., Moffat, A. and Bell, T.C. (1995) “Compression and full-text indexing for digital libraries.” in Advances in digital libraries, edited by N.R. Adam, et al., pp. 181-203. Springer Verlag (Lecture Notes in Computer Science series). February.
Witten, I.H., Cunningham, S.J. and Apperley, M.D. (1996) “The New Zealand Digital Library project.” New Zealand Libraries, 48(8), pp. 146-152, December. (Also published in D-Lib Magazine, November 1996).
Witten, I.H., Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Cunningham, S.J. (1996) “Digital libraries based on full-text retrieval.” Proc Webnet'96, pp. 486-495, San Francisco, October.
Cunningham, S.J., Holmes, G., Littin, J., Beale, R. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Applying connectionist models to information retrieval.” in Brain-like computing and intelligent information systems, edited by S.-i. Amari, et al., pp. 435-460. Springer Verlag.
McNab, R.J., Smith, L.A., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “The New Zealand Digital Library MELody inDEX.” D-Lib Magazine, May.
Moffat, A., Bell, T.C. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Lossless compression for text and images.” Int J High-Speed Electronics and Systems, 8(1), pp. 179-231. (special issue on Signal Compression). Also published as a chapter of Signal Compression: Coding of speech, audio, text, image, and video, edited by N.S. Jayant, World Scientific, Singapore.
Moffat, A. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “A compression-based digital library.” DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 17(6), pp. 31-41, November.
Smith, L.A., McNab, R.J. and Witten, I.H. (1998) “Sequence-based melodic comparison: a dynamic programming approach.” in Melodic Similarity; Concepts, procedures, and applications (Computing in Musicology, Vol. 11), edited by W.H. Hewlett, et al., pp. 101-117. MIT Press.
Witten, I.H. (1999) “Browsing around a digital library.” Proc Australasian Computer Science Conference, edited by J. Edwards, pp. 1-14, Auckland, NZ, January. Springer-Verlag.
Witten, I.H., Frank, E., Trigg, L., Hall, M., Holmes, G. and Cunningham, S.J. (1999) “Weka: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java implementations.” Proc ICONIP/ANZIIS/ANNES99 Future Directions for Intelligent Systems and Information Sciences, pp. 192-196, Dunedin, New Zealand, November.
Paynter, G.W. and Witten, I.H. (2001) “Domain-independent programming by demonstration in existing applications.” in Your wish is my command: Programming by example, edited by H. Lieberman, pp. 297-320. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco.
Witten, I.H. (2001) “Learning structure from sequences, with applications in a digital library.” Proc International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 643 (abstract only), Williams College, Massachusetts, June-July.
Witten, I.H. (2001) “Standing on the threshold of a virtual library.” Millennium III: A workshop of ideas and projects of the global civilization, pp. 9-38, Bucharest, Romania, Autumn. Black Sea University Foundation.
Witten, I.H. (2001) “Visions of the digital library.” Proc Int Conference of Asian Digital Libraries, pp. 3-15, Bangalore, India, December.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Boddie, S.J. (2001) “Greenstone: Open-source digital library software.” D-Lib Magazine, 7(10), October. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october01/witten/10witten.html.
Apperley, M., Keegan, T.T., Cunningham, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2002) “Delivering the Maori-language newspapers on the Internet.” in Rere atu, taku manu! Discovering history, language and politics in the Maori-language newspapers, edited by J. Curnow, et al., pp. 211-232. Auckland University Press, Auckland, New Zealand.
Paynter, G.W., Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D. and Boddie, S. (2002) “Greenstone: collection management for digital works.” in Open source projects in libraries: a LITA Guide, pp. 45-61. Library Information Technology Association, American Library Association. (The Electronic Library, Expanded version in Communications of the ACM).
Witten, I.H. (2002) “Examples of practical digital libraries: collections built internationally using Greenstone.” Proc Int Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, Digital libraries: People, knowledge, and technology, LNCS 2555, edited by E.-P. Lim, et al., pp. 67-74, Singapore, December. Springer Verlag.
Witten, I.H. (2003) “Browsing around a digital library.” Proc ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp. 99, Baltimore, MD, January.
Witten, I.H. (2003) “Examples of practical digital libraries: collections built internationally using Greenstone.” D-Lib Magazine, 9(3), March. (Extended version of paper in Proc Asian Digital Libraries, April 2002).
Witten, I.H. (2004) “Creating and customizing digital library collections with the Greenstone Librarian Interface.” International Symposium on Digital Libraries and Knowledge Communities in Networked Information Society, edited by S. Sugimoto, pp. 97-104, University of Tsukuba, Tokyo, March.
Witten, I.H. (2004) “Digital library futuristics: Developing countries, universal access, and information for all.” International Conference on Digital Libraries, 2, pp. 962-968, New Delhi, India, February.
Nichols, D.M., Bainbridge, D., Marsden, G., Patel, D., Cunningham, S.J., Thompson, J., Boddie, S.J. and Witten, I.H. (2005) “Evolving tool support for digital librarians.” in Design and Usability of Digital Libraries : Case Studies in the Asia Pacific, edited by Y.L. Theng, et al., pp. 171-189. Information Science Publishing.
Witten, I.H. (2005) “Digital Libraries and society: New perspectives on information dissemination.” in Design and Usability of Digital Libraries : Case Studies in the Asia Pacific, edited by Y.L. Theng, et al., pp. 191-215. Information Science Publishing.
Witten, I.H. (2005) “Text mining.” in Practical handbook of internet computing, edited by M.P. Singh, pp. 14-1 - 14-22. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Frank, E., Hall, M., Holmes, G., Kirkby, R., Pfahringer, B., Witten, I.H. and Trigg, L. (2005) “WEKA: A machine learning workbench for data mining.” in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Handbook: A Complete Guide for Practitioners and Researchers, edited by L. Rokach, pp. 1305-1314. Springer-Verlag.
Witten, I.H., Bainbridge, D., Huang, C.-Y. and Don, K.J. (2005) “StoneD: A bridge between Greenstone and DSpace.” D-Lib Magazine, 11(9), September.
Witten, I.H. (2006) “Arise, librarians: Today the world is yours.” in Developing Cyber Libraries, a festschrift in honour of Prof. M Sanakara Reddy, Hyderabad, edited by L.S. Ramaiah, et al., pp. 1-15. Allied Publishers Pvt. Limited, Hyderabad.
Witten, I.H. (2007) “Bias, privacy, and personalization on the web.” in E-Libraries: Problem and Perspectives (T Ashok Babu Festschrift), edited by L.S. Ramaiah, et al., Jamia Milia University. Allied Publishers Pvt. Limited, New Delhi.
Witten, I.H. (2008) “The development and usage of the Greenstone digital library software.” Special Issue, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 35(2), pp. 31-38, December.
Witten, I.H. (2009) “Classification.” Encyclopedia of Database Systems, edited by M.T. Ozsu, et al, pp. 331-335. Springer Verlag.
Witten, I.H. (2009) “Greenstone Digital Library Software: Reconciling production values with a research framework.” Handbook of Research on Digital Libraries: Design Development, and Impact, edited by Y.L. Theng, et al, pp.61-72, IGI Global Publication.

Articles

Witten, I.H. (1972) “Talking with computers.” Electrical and Electronics Technician Engineer, 7, pp. 3-8, September.
Witten, I.H. (1977) “In search of PURR-PUSS—a visitor's experience.” Man-Machine Studies, UC-DSE(11), pp. 5-52, May.
Witten, I.H. and Madams, P.H.C. (1978) “The Chatterbox—a speech toy Parts I and II.” Wireless World, 84, pp. 36-41. December, and 85, 77-80, January 1979.
McArthur, N., Wingfield, A.J. and Witten, I.H. (1979) “The intelligent plug.” Wireless World, 85, pp. 46-51, December.
Witten, I.H. (1979) “Computer buses Parts I and II.” Wireless World, 85, pp. 32-35, February, and 60-62, March.
Witten, I.H. (1979) “Microcomputer interfaces Parts I and II.” Wireless World, 85, pp. 67-70, September, and 77-78, October.
Witten, I.H. (1980) “Graphical communication with microcomputers Parts I and II.” Wireless World, 86, pp. 26-30, August, and 73-76, September.
Witten, I.H. (1981) “Digital storage and analysis of speech Parts I, II, and III.” Wireless World, 87, pp. 45-48, 59, July; 53-54, August; and 74-76, October.
Witten, I.H. (1981) “The new technology.” University of Calgary Alumni Magazine, 12(5), pp. 10-12, May/June.
Witten, I.H. (1983) “The Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary.” Computer Science Association Newsletter, 11(1), pp. 15-23, December.
Witten, I.H. (1983) “Welcome to the standards jungle.” Byte, 8(2), pp. 146-178, February.
Witten, I.H., Birtwistle, G.M., Cleary, J., Hill, D.R., Levinson, D., Lomow, G., Neal, R., Peterson, M., Unger, B.W. and Wyvill, B. (1983) “Jade: a distributed software prototyping environment.” ACM Operating Systems Review, 17(3), pp. 10-23, July.
Witten, I.H. (1986) “Expert systems.” Man-Machine Studies, UC-DSE(28), pp. 5-65, May. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Witten, I.H. and Cleary, J.G. (1986) “Foretelling the future by adaptive modeling.” Abacus, 3(3), pp. 16-36, Spring. Reprinted in Weiss, E.A. (editor) (1988) A Computer Science reader. Springer Verlag, New York, pp 86-109.
Witten, I.H. (1987) “Computer (in)security—infiltrating open systems.” Abacus, 4(4), pp. 6-25, Summer.
Witten, I.H. (1987) “Thoughts on artificial intentionality.” Man-Machine Studies, UC-DSE(9), pp. 5-52, January. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Thimbleby, H.W. and Witten, I.H. (1989) “Bugs in the Church-Turing thesis.” Canadian AI, pp. 17-18, April.
Witten, I.H. (1990) “How to get a research grant.” Canadian AI, pp. 9-13, July.
Witten, I.H. and Thimbleby, H. (1990) “The worm that turned.” Personal Computer World, pp. 202-206, July.
Witten, I.H. and Thimbleby, H.W. (1990) “The 'worm' programs—early experience with a distributed intelligence.” ACM SIGART Bulletin, 1(2), pp. 14-17, July.
Witten, I.H. (1993) “Guest editorial.” New Zealand Journal of Computing, 4(2), pp. 3-4, May.
Inglis, S. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Eyeing up the magic eye.” NZ Science Monthly, 6(4), pp. 6-7, May.
Moffat, A., Zobel, J., Witten, I.H. and Bell, T.C. (1995) “The role of compression in document databases.” SIGLINK Newsletter, 4(2), pp. 20-22, September.
Witten, I.H. (1996) “News from New Zealand: a digital library for computer science research.” Bulletin European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, 60, pp. 62, October.
Witten, I.H. (2003) “Customizing digital library interfaces with Greenstone.” IEEE-CS Technical Committee on Digital Libraries Bulletin, 1(1), Summer. published online http://www.ieee-tcdl-org/Bulletin/summer2003/.
Witten, I.H. (2006) “Digital libraries for the developing world.” interactions "Under Development" column . July-August issue.

Letters

Witten, I.H. (1988) “Financial applications.” IEEE Expert, 3(1), pp. 6, Spring. Letter to the editor.
Witten, I.H. (1988) “Insidious worms.” Abacus, 5(2), Winter. Reply to a letter to the editor.
Witten, I.H., Neal, R. and Cleary, J.G. (1988) “Compress and compact discussed further.” Communications of the ACM, 31(9), pp. 1140, 1145, September. Reply to a letter to the editor.
Witten, I.H. and Thimbleby, H. (1989) “Worms and bugs in the Church-Turing thesis.” Canadian AI, 21, pp. 3-4, October.

Workshops, Poster Sessions, etc.

Greenberg, S., Darragh, J.J., Maulsby, D.L. and Witten, I.H. (1991) “Predictive interfaces: what will they think of next?” CHI Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction, New Orleans, LA, April.
Davies, R.M. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Compressing computer programs.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 469. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA. (abstract only; full paper available as Working Paper 93/7, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Phan, T.H. and Witten, I.H. (1994) “Function discovery using data transformation.” Proc International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics, Florida, January.
Witten, I.H. (1994) “Trans-Pacific machine learning research: the Calgary/Waikato axis.” Proc Canadian Machine Learning Workshop, pp. xv-1, Banff, May.
Garner, S.R., Cunningham, S.J., Holmes, G., Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Applying a machine learning workbench: experience with agricultural databases.” Proc Workshop on Applications of Machine Learning, ML'95, pp. 14-21, Tahoe City, CA, July. (Also available as Working Paper 95/13, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Maulsby, D. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Learning to describe data in actions.” Proc Workshop on Programming by Demonstration, ML'95, pp. 65-73, Tahoe City, CA, July.
Nevill-Manning, C.G. and Witten, I.H. (1995) “Detecting sequential structure.” Proc Workshop on Programming by Demonstration, ML'95, pp. 49-56, Tahoe City, CA, July.
Inglis, S. and Witten, I.H. (1996) “Bi-level document image compression using layout information.” in Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 442. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA. (abstract only; full paper available as Working Paper 96/1, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato; January).
Wang, Y. and Witten, I.H. (1997) “Inducing model trees for continuous classes.” Poster papers, European Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 128-137, Prague, Czech, April.
McNab, R.J., Wang, Y., Witten, I.H. and Gutwin, C. (1998) “Predicting query times.” Proc SIGIR, Melbourne, Australia. (Poster paper).
Bach, J. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Lexical attraction for text compression.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 516. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA. (abstract only; full paper available as Working Paper 99/1, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Paynter, G.W. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Automating iteration with programming by demonstration: Learning the user's task.” Proc IJCAI'99 Workshop on Learning about Users, Stockholm, Sweden.
Wang, Y. and Witten, I.H. (1999) “Clustering with finite data from semi-parametric mixture distributions.” Proc Symposium on the Interface: Models, Predictions, and Computing, Schaumburg, Illinois. (Abstract only).
Witten, I.H., Bray, Z., Mahoui, M. and Teahan, W.J. (1999) “Using language models for generic entity extraction.” Proc ICML'99 Workshop on Machine Learning in Text Data Analysis, pp. 25-35, Bled, Slovenia, June.
Witten, I.H., Paynter, G.W., Frank, E., Gutwin, C. and Nevill-Manning, C. (1999) “KEA: Practical automatic keyphrase extraction.” Proc Digital Libraries '99, pp. 254-255, Berkeley, CA, August. (Poster paper; full version available as Working Paper 00/5, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Frank, E., Chui, C. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Text categorization using compression models.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 555, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA. (Poster paper; full version available as Working Paper 00/2, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Yeates, S., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2000) “Using compression to identify acronyms in text.” Proc Data Compression Conference, edited by J.A. Storer, et al., pp. 582, Snowbird, Utah, March. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA. (Poster paper; full version available as Working Paper 00/1, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato).
Witten, I.H. (2002) “How to build a digital library using open-source software.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 416, Portland, Oregon, July. (Tutorial summary).
Witten, I.H. and Bainbridge, D. (2002) “Hands-on workshop: Build your own digital library collections.” Proc Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 420, Portland, Oregon, July. (Tutorial summary).
Witten, I.H. (2004) “Building digital libraries using open source software.” International Conference on Digital Libraries Tutorial Notes, pp. 69-141, New Delhi, India, February.
Boddie, S., Thomson, J., Bainbridge, D. and Witten, I.H. (2008) “Coping with very large digital collections using Greenstone.” Proc European Conference on Digital Libraries Workshop on Very Large Digital Libraries, Aarhus, Denmark, September.

 

Last updated 7/12/05